Many low- and middle-income countries are adopting far-reaching health financing policies using strategic health purchasing (SHP) approaches to address their health sector challenges. However, limited efforts have been directed toward analyzing the SHP activities nationwide. Our objective was to explore the scope and development of SHP in Cameroon. We conducted a scoping review applying the framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley and modified by Levac et al. to identify and extract data from relevant SHP studies and documents published between 2000 and 2019, which focused on Cameroon. Among the existing 30 health financing schemes, 5 present the elements of SHP: (1) national health insurance (NHI), (2) performance-based financing (PBF), (3) voucher system, (4) private health insurance, and (5) mutual health organizations. The findings suggest that the governance function of purchasing is very challenging due to the multiple purchaser markets and the resulting fragmentation of the health financing system. In addition, the misalignment of the different benefit packages across schemes leads to considerable gaps and overlaps in the population coverage. The issue of multiple highly fragmented payment systems also remains a big concern across the different schemes, with tentative harmonization observed with NHI and PBF. Achieving the full potential of SHP in Cameroon will require (1) a defragmentation of the multiple schemes, (2) an effective oversight arrangement, and (3) an alignment of provider payment method to a coherent set of incentives across the system, with the ultimate aim of promoting equity, efficiency and quality……more

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