The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that smoking kills more than 8 million people every year. While the WHO African Region has the lowest smoking prevalence of all WHO regions (roughly 6% of the world’s smokers), transnational tobacco companies are aggressively investing and marketing their products in the continent, hindering efforts towards lowering tobacco use prevalence. Currently, over 77 million adults smoke in Africa and this figure is expected to grow steadily over the next century, reaching 413 million smokers by 2100.1 A more immediate concern is that the number of smokers in Africa (based on 2010 levels) is anticipated to rise from 15.8% to 21.9% by 2030, the largest projected increase in the world.2 Here we focus on the main tobacco companies operating in Africa: Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Imperial Brands and Japan Tobacco International, and on their attempts to increase the supply and demand of tobacco to the African market…more