Many health system stakeholders are working to deepen public-private engagement (PPE) to help strengthen mixed health systems and improve their performance. As part of this blog series, we previously asserted the importance of considering PPE within a complex ecosystem of environmental, structural and engagement factors (Figure 1) that may help or hinder effective engagement. However, we anticipate stakeholders want more than this framing and expect they also seek guidance and information about whether or how to undertake PPE effectively….more