MD/MBA students come to business school motivated to learn — they want to know about management, says Raffaella Sadun, the Thomas S. Murphy Associate Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School. “They’ve seen quite bad management before coming to the MBA, so they know the reality well.”

It’s not that these students come from bad institutions. “What’s happening is that the adoption of good management is very uneven in health care,” says Sadun. “And there are pockets of excellence. But there are also places that are lacking in terms of basic management practices.”