Co-production of knowledge through research involves collaborations between researchers and end-users of research, including patients and the public, health professionals, health system managers, and policymakers. This approach is being advocated globally, and across sectors. But there remains uncertainty on what co-production of research entails, how to do it, when and when not to do it. More evidence on these issues is essential if the co-production of research is to deliver on its promise to produce knowledge and share power and responsibility from the start to the end of research and avoid wasting time, resources, and the good will of end-users…more