Although many sub-Saharan African countries have made efforts to provide universal health coverage (UHC) for their citizens, several of these initiatives have achieved little success. This study aims to review the challenges facing UHC in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania, and to suggest program or policy changes that might bolster UHC. Routine data reported by the World Bank and World Health Organization, as well as annual reports of the national health insurance schemes of Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania, were analyzed. The data were supplemented by a review of published and gray literature on health insurance coverage in these four countries. The analysis showed that some of the challenges facing UHC in these countries include (1) large proportion of the population living in extreme poverty and unable to pay premiums, (2) large informal sector whose members are mostly uninsured, (3) high dropout rate from insurance schemes, (4) poorly funded primary health care system, and (5) segmented health insurance fund pool. In order to achieve UHC by 2030, it will be important for these countries to (1) raise sufficient revenue to finance their health systems, (2) improve the efficiency of revenue utilization, (3) identify and provide coverage for the very poor, (4) reduce the proportion of the population….more