Following the identifcation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Chinese province of Hubei in December 2019, governments worldwide enacted stringent measures to help prevent and manage
its spread. The response to what the World Health Organization (WHO) would later declare a pandemic required global supply chains to make rapid adjustments to the new needs and demands of an upended world. The strains caused disruptions at all functional levels of the supply chain including manufacturing, freight and logistics, procurement, health systems, and service delivery..more